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Fuzzy Math

A few weeks ago, my wife and kids and I spent a lazy Sunday afternoon at City Park in downtown Denver, Colorado. Our excursion wasn’t primarily for birding, but that didn’t stop me from noticing the park’s birdlife. Some of the birds I saw that afternoon included: 

  • 01 MERL4A handsome Merlin perched atop a tall cottonwood; and a lovely basic adult Bonaparte’s Gull flying just above the surface of one of the ponds in the park. Those are nice birds! I don’t mean they’re especially rare. Rather, I mean they’re, well, nice. They’re beautiful. I love seeing Merlins and Bonaparte’s Gulls. (Right: Merlin. Photo by Bill Schmoker.)
  • Nine Black-billed Magpies and approximately 90 House Sparrows. Magpies are common as dirt in the Denver metro area, but one never tires of studying these fascinating creatures. And I confess to a certain amount of fondness for House Sparrows, those exemplars of sociableness.
  • Gazillions of geese, of course. Nearly all were “white-cheeked geese” (Canada and Cackling geese), but I did manage to pick out a single adult Snow Goose in the great anserine throng.
  • One drake Barrow’s Goldeneye and a hrota Brant. Great birds! Barrow’s is a choice bird—rare but annual—in the Denver metro area, and Brant is a rarity anywhere in Colorado.
  • One Graylag Goose and three Indian Peafowl.


If you know Denver, then you know that City Park is home to the Denver Zoo. The peafowl and the Graylag Goose don’t “count.” Neither do the Barrow’s Goldeneye and Brant, because both were on a pond within the zoo’s perimeter. Meanwhile, the other species—Merlin and Bonaparte’s Gull, House Sparrow and Black-billed Magpie, and all those “white-cheeked geese”—were legit. They’re wild; they got there on their own; they “count.”

Actually, it’s not nearly so straightforward as I’ve just laid it out.

First off, what about the Snow Goose? We saw the bird in the zoo, milling around with Canada Geese. It was banded, but so were many of the Canada Geese. I couldn’t make out the Snow Goose’s band. Was it tagged here in the zoo, or was it banded by Canadian Wildlife Service biologists thousands of miles to the north? In other words, did the Snow Goose “count”? I just don’t know.

02 HOSP1 Now what about the House Sparrows? I’m practically certain the Denver Zoo doesn’t keep House Sparrows. But the House Sparrows see it differently. They consider themselves to be as much a part of the zoo’s fauna as the reticulated giraffes and Malayan tapirs. Indeed, we saw House Sparrows tending apparent nests in both the giraffe and tapir exhibits—in the indoor areas of those exhibits, no less. (Left: House Sparrows. Photo by Bill Schmoker.)

Do the House Sparrows “count”? I think most birders would say so—despite their heavy reliance on the manure, straw, and indoor roost sites at the Denver Zoo.

What about the Merlin? Surely it “counts”! Perhaps, but consider the following: In my experience, City Park is the most reliable place in Colorado to find Merlins. I’m suspect that’s because City Park—and the Denver Zoo in particular—is overrun with House Sparrows. I believe those sparrows—born and reared in the zoo—sustain the park's wintering Merlins. Indeed, the Merlin atop that cottonwood was devouring a passerine that I’m almost certain was a House Sparrow.

03 Malayan Tapir Dave Parsons If you want to see Merlins, House Sparrows, and Malayan tapirs, go to City Park. All three species prosper because of human activities at the Denver Zoo. (Right: Malayan tapir. Photo by Dave Parsons.)

Oh, all right, but can we at least “count” the Bonaparte’s Gull? It was flying around a pond outside the zoo’s perimeter. Ah, but that’s an artificial pond full of non-native fish and other aquatic organisms—among them the Graylag Goose. That’s right, the Graylag Goose wasn’t in the zoo; it was out in City Park, out in the “wild.” Indeed, I’ve been noticing Graylag Geese for several years now at City Park. They’re undeniably of non-native origin, but they seem to be as capable of survival on their own as the other denizens of City Park: the “white-cheeked geese” and Black-billed Magpies, the Merlin and Bonaparte’s Gull, and so forth. If those human-assisted species “count,” why don’t the Graylag Geese of City Park?

Moving right along, can we at least agree that the Indian Peafowl emphatically don’t “count”? That’s tricky, I have to say. Over the past several years, my kids and I have been noticing that peafowl breed in the zoo—not in cages or other exhibits, but rather at their own “natural” nest sites. Their nests are well hidden. If you do find one, and if you get too close, the adults will repel you. Yes, their nests are within the zoo’s perimeter, but that’s true as well of such zoo nesters as Northern Flickers and American Robins—native species that surely “count” for any birder’s checklist.

I know! I know what to do! Just don’t go birding in City Park! Such desiderata as Merlins and Bonaparte’s Gulls can be found elsewhere in the Front Range region—in places where you don’t have to fret about about feral Graylag Geese and Indian Peafowl; where you don’t have to ponder the native Black-billed Magpies and established House Sparrows that flourish around the Denver Zoo’s outbuildings and manure piles. Just focus on natural habitats, and all will be well.

Problem is, that strategy doesn’t really work. Let me explain by way of a personal odyssey of mine.

The first few years I lived in Boulder County, Colorado, I was baffled by a wild crowing sound I sometimes heard at dawn. What was it? A raptor? Possibly some large aquatic species? Maybe a terrestrial game bird?

Eventually, I figured it out: The source of that sound is the Indian Peafowl.

Click hear to listen to chorusing Indian Peafowl; recording by Gopinath Sricandane.

Peafowl are surprisingly widespread, I have found, in Boulder County. For folks who know the county, I can tell you that I’ve heard them recently at Walden Ponds, at Ish Reservoir, and along Apple Valley Road. Typically, I hear them well away from farms and other human residences. They’re just out there, out in the wild, doing their thing. Do the peafowl repair at night to roosts near barns and feedlots? They may well. That’s the avian way, after all: Think of all the American Kestrels, Barn Owls, and so forth that do the same thing.

05 Peacocks3 A little while ago, I added Indian Peafowl to my Boulder County lifelist. The birds are here. They’re meaningfully present in the county. They’re part of the biological and cultural landscape of Boulder County. As far as I'm concerned, they count.

(Left: These Indian Peafowl are part of a semi-feral population that appears to be widespread and possibly expanding in Boulder County, Colorado. Photo by Bill Schmoker.)

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Ted Floyd

Ted Floyd

Editor, Birding magazine at American Birding Association
Ted Floyd is the Editor of Birding magazine, and he is broadly involved in other programs and initiatives of the ABA. He is the author of more than 100 magazine and journal articles, and has written four recent books, including an ABA title, the ABA Guide to Birds of Colorado. Floyd is a frequent speaker at birding festivals and state ornithological society meetings, and he has served on the boards of several nonprofit organizations. Mainly, he listens to birds at night.
Ted Floyd

Latest posts by Ted Floyd (see all)

  • Ted,

    Great Post! I wrote a response/agreement on the Utah Birders Blog–in relation to Utah birds of course:


  • Interesting discussion. I’m glad eBird allows us to count species like those you mentioned. No matter their provenance, if they are living wild, especially those that are breeding and self-sustaining in the wild, they count in my book. Tracking their movements and populations is critical and interesting, so I say, Good for eBird!

    Counting, it turns out, is a very subjective and personal issue. If you want to play by the ABA’s or some other person’s rules, more power to you, enjoy it! Birders should not judge other birders on what they count, unless they have agreed to a fun competition within a certain set of guidelines.

  • Tim, your post on the Utah Birders Blog is great. You wrote something (which I append below) that was humbling for me. You reminded me that I, like you, have only relatively recently come around to appreciating the importance–ecological, and I would also say aesthetic–of exotic bird populations. Also like you, I can say that it was the experience of doing a big year (my Nevada big year in 2000) that really got me thinking about exotics in a new light. And I believe our experiences aren’t, honestly, all that exceptional; I think we’re part of a larger wave in the birding community that is coming to embrace the study and appreciation of exotic bird populations in the ABA Area and beyond. Thanks! –Ted

    From Tim Avery’s post:

    “A couple years ago I would have sang a very different story from what I am saying right now. I used to be a staunch supporter of ABA listing guidelines, and what was and wasn’t countable. Since my big year I have taken a huge step back from serious listing, and although I do keep lists, and rather thoroughly with eBird, I have included my sightings of Mute Swan and California Condor on my checklists.”

  • Really interesting discussion! I agree with the previous comment that “Counting, it turns out, is a very subjective and personal issue”…absolutely. I say they count if you count them.

  • Morgan Churchill

    What you count is of course a personal matter.

    Still, for me personally, counting a peacock in NA (at least away from the Palo Verde Peninsula) would feel like counting a barnyard chicken on my life list. And I certainly don’t think barnyard chickens are truly wild birds

  • Rob

    Hear, hear for exotics! Back in 1999 when I did my masters on the birds of Hornsby Bend, I included exotics in my species accounts including peafowl and feral chickens. While I’m not sure what to do with them as far as competitive or comparative listing goes, I’m glad more of us are keeping track of them. In fact, going back through my ABA list spreadsheet, I can see that I need to update my “uncountables” list with some of my eBird sightings.

    My own infatuation with “uncountable” exotics goes back to my very first RBA chase during middle school back in March 1982, when a Black-bellied Whistling Duck reported in Troutdale, Oregon ended up really being “just” an Egyptian Goose. Now we’ve got Egyptian Geese breeding “in the wild” here in Pennsylvania–and a blog post I did on these geese gets more comments than any other post I’ve ever done. These birds are everywhere and people–if not “real” birders, are paying attention.

    As for peafowl, I get several emails a month from people around the country asking for info on how to keep wandering peafowl out of their yards. Based on the number of emails I get, this is a bigger issue for people than many of the traditional bird/people issues we birders are more interested in like window kills, and on the bird nuisance scale it ranks up there with the issue of herons raiding koi ponds.

  • A follow up, if I may.

    The kids and I spent yesterday afternoon, Dec. 29th, in City Park. Sure enough, we saw a juvenile Merlin. We saw it flying into the zoo in hot pursuit of–you guessed it!–a House Sparrow. We also saw a juvenile Sharp-shinned Hawk chasing a House Sparrow. And we saw a rather satisfied-looking adult female Cooper’s Hawk sitting in a tree in the zoo; maybe she had just eaten a House Sparrow.

    Anyhow, you see the point. The keepers put out straw for the tapirs, which attracts House Sparrows, which attracts Merlins and accipiters.

    Re: tapirs. ‘d’never before heard one vocalize. Wow. An ear-piercing, short shriek, like a cross between a American Avocet and an exploding saxophone. A fascinating sound, although I wouldn’t call it pleasant.

  • Ted Floyd

    Breaking news!

    California Condors are countable again. Don Roberson says so, and that’s good enough for me. Indeed, that should be good enough for all of us.

    More info here:

  • Ted Floyd

    In the 12 March 2012 issue of Time magazine, there’s a feature on “10 Ideas That Are Changing Your Life.” One of those 10 ideas:

    “NATURE IS OVER. Little is left untouched by humans–and that demands a rethink of environmentalism.”

    Bryan Walsh tells us in “Nature is Over” that geologists and biologists are increasingly coming to view the Holocene epoch as over. Instead, we live in the Anthropocene epoch, which began with the Industrial Revolution.

    As Walsh notes in his essay, “The reality is that in the Anthropocene, there may simply be no room for nature, at least not nature as we’ve known and celebrated it–something separate from human beings–something pristine. There’s no getting back to the Garden, assuming it ever existed. For environmentalists, that will mean changing strategies, finding methods of conservation that are more people-friendly and that allow wildlife to coexist with human development. It means, if not embracing the human influence on the planet, at least accepting it.”

    In other words, Muir and Leopold were wrong. So are the NIB’ers. Y’know, these people:


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