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Nikon Monarch 7

    Hawaii, Heard-only, Cats, and [‘]Okina[s]

    Certain topics inevitably arouse the passions of ABA members. Should Hawaii be admitted to the ABA Area? Should heard-only birds count? Outdoor cats, anyone? And, as the latest issue of Birding once again attests (James Hill, “Details, Details,” p. 16), we birders sure get fired up about the proper care and handling of bird names. 

    12-4-01-01 [Hawai'i 'Elepaio]A little while ago, several of us on the staff of Birding got into a conversation about the very matter. Should we write Hawaii Elepaio, with no [‘]okina[s], as the American Ornithologists’ Union does? Or should we continue to render it Hawai‘i ‘Elepaio, as per longstanding editorial policy at Birding?
    Left: Photo by © Jack Jeffrey. 

    We had terrific fun with the conversation, and we veered off onto some wonderful tangents. But at the end of the day (it was a long conversation…), we hadn’t come to any consensus. Hence, a straw poll: elepaio or ‘elepaio? You tell us. Seriously. We’d love to hear from ABA members about this matter. Here’s your chance to influence editorial policy at Birding. Go for it!



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    • http://profile.typepad.com/6p0162fbed8b53970d Ned Brinkley

      We discontinued using the okina at North American Birds a few years ago; we never used long marks over vowels, by the way for Hawaiian birds’ names. That was before I went to Hawaii. Now I rather regret the loss of these marks, after hearing advanced (mainland) birders mispronounce simple names like ‘Ōma’o – hearing “oh-MAU” made the poor Hawaiian birders cringe and shake their heads. So because they do provide valuable clues (even stumbling blocks) to new birders, perhaps we should restore them in North American Birds.

    • http://aurielfournier.blogspot.com Auriel Fournier

      I think it really helps in the pronunciation of the bird’s names and it’s a tribute to the unique place where they are from.

    • Paul Hess

      Are diacritical marks essential to the meaning of some Hawaiian words? I don’t know anything about this subject, but my sister, who travels often to Hawaii, tells me that “pau” has various meanings depending on diacritical marks and that there may be other such words.

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      Yes, Paul. In fact, the ‘okina isn’t a diacritical mark. It’s a LETTER in its own right: a consonant, in fact. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ʻOkina Imagine if some know-nothings decided they didn’t like the letter R and were going to stop using it. ‘Cause, you know, car is pronounced ca in Boston.

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      The macron (horizontal line over the vowels) is also important. It conveys the temporal length of the spoken vowel: that the vowel is geminate/long/doubled.

      Take the word “kala”. A kala is a kind of fish. Kalā is the sun. Kālā means dollar/money. Without them, “Excuse me, sir, the money sure is nice today, I’d like to buy your beautiful sun. Is 10 fish enough”?

      But the macron should also help with more accurate pronunciation by birders. I think the natural inclination of a North American English speak would be to pronounce Akepa as “uh-KAY-puh” or even “uh-KEEP-uh”. But ʻĀkepa, with the macron over the first A, is more readily pronounced “AH-kehp-ah”.

    • http://birdaz.com/blog Rick Wright

      I seem to have deleted my own comment, or maybe this blog is smart enough to suppress dissenting voices automatically! :)

      Anyway, the ‘okina is neither an English letter nor the representation of an English sound, and thus has no place in English prose.

      And while I’m at it, furrin words have no place in English prose, either. The use of ‘native’ names in a text not in the native language has always struck me as a condescending, politically correct affectation.

      So: ‘elepaio? elepaio? Nope, neither. It’s Kaui Monarch, etc., for me.

    • Madeline

      I agree with Auriel. Add my vote!

    • Terry Bronson

      Regarding all foreign words, I don’t think more than a tiny fraction of people know–or even care–what all the macrons, okinas, umlauts, and other symbols associated with letters mean. He or she is just going to pronounce it as best he or she can in the English manner (or typical manner of French, Spanish, or other language). So although grammatically correct in the non-English language to include such symbols, in usage and understanding by English-speaking persons they are meaningless.

    • http://scienceofbirds.blogspot.com Nick Minor

      I agree with Terry’s assessment that in the end, most birders will likely do their best without knowing how the foreign words are constructed, similar to scientific names, but obviously with the new symbols in the case of Hawai’i. If we do reconstruct the names with the correct symbols–something I support–there would have to be some form of education of the birding community, which ultimately should end up using them correctly. If we’re going to use Hawaiian names, we should do it right and anglicize them as little as possible while still leaving them possible for most people to say in a casual conversation.

      As far as English “prose” goes, the language is already a mish-mash of so many languages that I think its pointless to try to keep out new words from different languages. And hey, if birders came to understand these new symbols, wouldn’t that alleviate the condescension? It’s a new level of cultural understanding for many of us, and with that understanding hopefully the stereotype of continental-birders being culturally ignorant will fade out too, at least in this case ;). And hey, anything that makes us more worldly is for the better, right?

    • Morgan Churchill

      I would prefer that we simply default to AOU policy when it comes to bird names, just for consistency. Slight variance in spelling between AOU or ABA could open up the possibility of changing other aspects of common names.

      Honestly, as an English speaker, the okina doesn’t help me at all in pronouncing the Hawaiian bird names.

    • Morgan Churchill

      Ah, but what about Guillemots, Jaegars, Chachalacas, Jacanas, etc. I don’t think it’s possible not to borrow from other languages for bird common names.

    • Ted Floyd

      Yeah, but as Rick Wright notes, we speakers of English don’t have that letter and we don’t have that sound.

      Check this out:


      Japanese doesn’t have the “th” sound that we have in English, so, when Japanese editors transliterate English words, they replace the “th” sound with their “s” or “z,” even though, in English, thing and sing, and think and zinc, mean different things (cf. Michael’s kala, kalā, and kālā).

      If we use the okina, why not also render Hawaiian plurals the “right” way, just as Birding correspondent James Hill proposes? Thus, instead of Rick Wright’s “monarchs,” we would write “nā ‘elapaio.” Indeed, why not go all the way, and just publish the whole article in Hawaiian?

      Also, should we write “Nanday,” “Budgerigar,” and “macaw” in their “correct” languages?

      Thanks to all of you for your contributions! You’re making a difference.

    • Ted Floyd

      Should we render those names jäger and jaçana? As to “chachalaca,” I’ve always taken the name to be English-language onomatopoeia. And if it’s hard to pronounce ʻĀkepa (hi, Michael), then guillemot is hopeless.

    • http://profile.typepad.com/rlkittiwake Rlkittiwake

      Rick, I never knew you were French. :-P

      We’re Americans from the U.S. and Canada. Most of us don’t even have “English” blood, or if we do, it’s a small fraction of our genetic makeup. Quite a few of us don’t even have any European ancestry at all. It’s more or less a sport of history that we’re even conversing in this language and not German, Spanish, French, or some other language.

      Hawai’ian is not a foreign language. It’s indigenous to the United States. If anything, English is the foreign language here.

      We already have “foreign” bird names that we use every day. We already use the French words avocet, cormorant, eagle, egret, falcon, grebe, grosbeak, guillemot, heron, martin, oriole, phalarope, pheasant, pigeon, plover, and rail as accepted terms for the local avifauna.

      I’m a fan of using native words for things, within reason. There are already too many bird names around the world that reek of colonialism and the attitude that it didn’t exist until some posh British dude showed up in the 1800s and “discovered” a species that the natives had known about for tens of thousands of years.

      You want to use the word “monarch?” We’re a democracy here.

    • Ted Floyd

      The question, though, is how to render the name on the pages of Birding magazine.

      We write “vulture,” even though many people in North America refer to the bird as “vautour,” “buitre,” and–oh, yes–”buzzard.” We’re not necessarily “right,” and they’re certainly not “wrong.” Nevertheless, we need a standard for the English-language bimonthly publication of the ABA.

    • http://profile.typepad.com/tfloyd Ted Floyd

      In the final analysis, Morgan’s is the argument that carries the day.

      By stipulation, the ABA follows AOU nomenclature. We may not like wigeon (1.07 million Google hits, compared to 1.69 million for widgeon), and we may well cringe at Rosy-faced Lovebird (40.8 K hits, compared to 104.0 K hits for Peach-faced Lovebird). And, needless to say, all sane people agree with me that logic, precedent, and basic human decency militate against such execrations as Cooper’s Hawk, Wilson’s Warbler, and Vaux’s Swift. They’re properly Cooper Hawk, Wilson Warbler, and Vaux Swift, of course; see http://thedrinkingbirdblog.com/2010/02/19/whats-in-a-common-name/

      Nevertheless, the AOU employs American Wigeon, Rosy-faced Lovebird, and Cooper’s Hawk, and so do we. And we follow the AOU’s Hawaii Elepaio, not Hawai’i ‘Elepaio or Hawaii Monarch.

      Oh, and worst of all, we capitalize the standard English names of birds… ;-)

    • http://profile.typepad.com/rlkittiwake Rlkittiwake

      I would never argue against having a consistent style, I was merely pointing out that language is fluid and what seems outlandish and “foreign” in one era becomes completely common in another era. If the ABA adopts Hawai’ian bird names with all the ‘okina and whatnot intact, people will learn to use them. Birders are flexible; there are few among us who still refer to the Brown Towhee or the Short-billed Marsh Wren.

      I’d personally like to see all the old colonial names done away with. Brutally subjugating Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Oceania wasn’t heroic or admirable, and continuing to call birds after Governor Generals and majors and duchesses and other historical relicts is something that I hope to see ended.

    • http://profile.typepad.com/rlkittiwake Rlkittiwake


    • http://profile.typepad.com/tfloyd Ted Floyd

      Great, but you’re barking up the wrong tree. It is the American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU), not the American Birding Association (ABA), that determines what we call birds.

      The idea of an ABA nomenclature, separate from an AOU nomenclature, did gain some traction, about 40 years ago. In due course, folks backed off. It was better, the argument went, to have a single authority than a Tower of Babel.

      But I do question whether that one authority is as, hmm, authoritative as some of us imagine. Open up the pages of Science, BirdWatcher’s Digest, and the Washington Post–credible publications all–and you’ll see red-winged blackbirds and American robins, not Red-winged Blackbirds and American Robins. Go online, and you’ll see more widgeons than wigeons; go into people’s homes, where they keep conures and amazons; and go out into the field, where folks cheerfully speak of redbirds and wild canaries, of buzzards and marsh hawks and, yes, even chicken hawks.

      Then there’s the matter of all the folks in North America who speak in languages other than English. I wonder: How many people in Québec really say Urubu à tête rouge?–the AOU-compliant name for the bird whose scientific name is Cathartes aura. For that same bird, Mexican ornitho-lexicographer Louise C. Schoenhals gives us the following: aura cabeza roja, águila ratonera, alfaneque, aura, aura común, joti, patatuco, viuda, zope solitario, zopilote, and zopilote cabeza roja. And then there are the other Spanish-language dialects and birderly traditions of Central America–which, Michael Retter is quick to remind us, is a part of North America.

      It’s a good thing–eh?–that the species doesn’t get as far north as Nunavut, what with the rich linguistic traditions of that territory’s official Inuinnaqtun and Inuktitut languages.

    • http://birdaz.com/blog Rick Wright

      You’ve shifted the argument, Rissa, to one about politics, geography, and history, matters about which I suspect you and I agree completely.

      But if we return to the point at hand, which is whether non-English names of birds should be used in English texts, I stick to my guns and say no. When that American bittern showed up in HI this past winter, did the Hawaiian-language publications interrupt the flow of their Hawaiian prose and use the English name of the bird? I surely hope not.

    • http://birdaz.com/blog Rick Wright

      And jaeger, too, is an American concoction; no German calls the birds Jäger.

    • http://birdaz.com/blog Rick Wright

      That’s the best strategy, Morgan — especially if it’s coupled with constant vigilance to keep that committee on its linguistic toes.

    • http://profile.typepad.com/tfloyd Ted Floyd

      “When that American bittern showed up in HI this past winter, did the Hawaiian-language publications interrupt the flow of their Hawaiian prose and use the English name of the bird? I surely hope not.”

      I suspect–but where’re Lance Tanino and Eric VanderWerf when ya need ‘em??–that those Hawaiian-language publications did indeed use the English name of the bird.

      The other day, I was looking at the brochure of a Dutch bird tour company; the whole thing was in Dutch–except for the impeccably rendered standard English names of all the great birds tour participants can hope to see in Portugal, Texas, and Morocco. Also, I recently received a Chinese-language email; I didn’t have a clue about any of it, except for all the standard English names. And it’s my experience that most Spanish-speaking birders in the western hemisphere elect to use the standard English names of the birds they’re seeing and talking about.

      So, for better or for worse, English, it seems, is the lingua franca of today’s global birding community.

    • Mark

      Rosy-faced Lovebird’s scientific name is A. roseicollis which I think means rosy collared. I do not think there necessarily has to be a connection between the two names. Rosy-collared is a less used common name for the bird. A.O.U. rules! ABA drools.

    • http://birdaz.com/blog Rick Wright

      Agh, definitely for worse.

    • Terry Bronson

      But is there even a Hawaiian name for species from the mainland of North America? Or other continents? I wouldn’t think so, so Hawaiians would have to use the non-Hawaiian name.

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      ^^^^^^ Exactly.

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      FWIW, in most of my conversations with Mexican birders, the standard English names of birds are used, sprinkled among an otherwise Spanish conversation. On the Mexican birders’ forum, Aves de México, this is also usually the case. Check out this first comment on a post called “Red-breasted Nuthatch”:

      “Bellísima especie, ya tuve el gusto, pero sigo sin conocer al White-bre[a]sted. Bonita foto. Felicidades.”

      Here are some other posts:

      Yellow-lored Parrot en Okaán Yucatán.
      Jaeger en Desembocadura Río Jamapa, Veracruz…
      ¿Black footed albatross desde la playa?
      House Sparrow otra hembra con leucitismo parcial en el R. Tamayo.

      You get the idea.

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      I also agree to Auriel!

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      Another good example of the use of the ‘okina for the words, Lana’i and Lanai. Lana’i = the Island of Lana’i Lanai = balcony

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      The Hawaiian word for macron = kahako, with a macron over the letter ‘o’.

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      Isn’t American English LOADED with “furrin” words?

      For those using the word “Hawai’ian”, there is no such word. It is simply “Hawaiian” without any ‘okina (glottal stop) because it’s an American English word.

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      I’m only slightly disappointed to hear that Terry and Nick have such low standards for birders. I think of it as a great way to educate ourselves and understand Hawai’i and its birds with respect and honor.

    • http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/groups/HIBirdwatchingLT/ Lance Tanino

      I can understand the argument for defaulting to AOU policy, however, we don’t default to AOU policy when it comes to list areas do we?

      I feel the quality of ABA publications will be better with the use of proper glottal stops (‘okina) and macrons (kahako). It is a great way to respect, honor, and pay tribute to our 50th State’s seldom recognized unique bird species from the past and present.

      The list of bird species with Hawaiian names is relatively short so I don’t think it would cause major delays in ABA publications.

      I appreciate this discussion, feels like the ABA community is much closer to the islands. Mahalo!

    • Terry Bronson

      One last word. It has nothing to do with understanding a certain region or respecting birds or the heritage of a country. It has to do with understanding, writing, and speaking a foreign language, which Hawaiian is to everyone except native Hawaiians. Does anyone expect a birder to learn Russian and write their bird names in Cyrillic, use Chinese characters for Chinese birds, use Arabic for Middle Eastern birds? Also, French, Spanish, Greek, and many other languages. So why is Hawaii any different?

    • Rob Williams

      Great post and discussion. Keep all the vowels and diacritical marks it is part of the history of the bird name and beautiful, valuable and interesting in its own right. The only real argument against boils down to laziness for not learning them but we can look them up and it does not really matter if people get them wrong. Don’t get me started on grey though…..

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      Morgan, would you really not be persuaded to pronounce ‘Akeke’e any differently than Akekee? In particular, to pause for just a moment to wonder why that mark is between the last two Es? And then to resist pronouncing them like the two Es in flee? But even if not, what about the rest of us who would be so inclined? Just because the marks are meaningless to some doesn’t meant that’s the case for all.

    • Me

      Are you proposing that American English bird names become the standard for Spanish speakers? That doesn’t sound respectful to the Spanish language. Are you proposing some universal polyglot for bird names?

      Likewise, putting non-English words into ABA or AOU bird names, like jäger or jaçana or ʻĀkepa, would be disrespectful to the English language. Those are foreign language characters, not English.

      As far as I know, the AOU and ABA only assigns bird names in English. I would have no issues with AOU and ABA also assigning Spanish bird names, but I would want them to be in Spanish, not English or Spanglish.

    • http://www.xenospiza.com Michael Retter

      Ted, we *do* indeed use the glottal stop as a sound in English. We just don’t use a letter to express it. It’s most common in North American English in the phrases “uh-oh” and “uh-uh” (meaning “no”) and words like button and kitten and even Clinton. And then there’s its widespread usage in some English English dialects, in words like “bottle” and even “city’.

    • http://terpsinoe.wordpress.com Sonia Stephens

      I’d like to agree with Lance and others who suggest that including Hawaiian diacritical markings in bird names is respectful of Hawaiian culture. Hawaiian is one of the two official languages of the State of Hawaii. Leaving off the diacritical markings means you’re spelling the names of Hawaiian birds incorrectly.

      From a cultural perspective, the reason to spell Hawaiian birds’ names correctly is the same reason we now call the ‘Oldsquaw’ the ‘Long-tailed duck’: recognition that certain linguistic practices are offensive to marginalized cultural groups.

      This has practical implications when it comes to conservation. Awareness and recognition of local culture by the broader birding community builds local goodwill, which is necessary for the success of conservation programs. Given the imperiled status of many Hawaiian birds, I’d argue that correct spelling of Hawaiian names might make a difference for the survival of many of these species.

    • http://www.martinreid.com Martin Reid

      Can someone tell me why the argument in favor of using Hawaiian names in English publications is any stronger than that for using mainland Native American names for mainland species? It seems to me that the geo-political history is equivalent (albeit from different periods). Some might argue that the multiple native languages make this impractical (but aren’t there different Hawaiian names for the same bird on different islands?) – but I am talking about the argument, not the implementation. Maybe the number of different Native American names for Wrentit or California Thrasher are not much larger than those in Hawaiian for multi-island forms?
      And as to “brutal colonialism”, I’d point out that during those periods in human history almost ALL groups/tribes/nations were busy doing it to their neighbors – it’s just that the European nations were the beneficiaries of location and chance (read “Guns, Germs, and Steel” by Jared Diamond) that equipped them with the means of do it MUCH better than others.

    • http://www.ericsalzman.com Eric Salzman

      Is there anything in the AOU or ABA rules which tells us how to pronounce bird names? Plover, parula, prothonotary, jacana, guillemot, cormorant and Lazuli Bunting are a few that come to mind. Guess a publication like BIRDING doesn’t have to deal with that!

      The answer to the language problem is easy: use the Latin names which are universal. A lot of European birders do that already. Of course, that doesn’t tell you how to pronounce the name as everybody has a different theory of how to pronounce Latin. Empidonax anyone?

      Eric Salzman

    • http://www.hdouglaspratt.com Doug Pratt

      I hope, Rick, that you will be consistent and use Sandwich Islands instead of Hawaii.

    • http://www.hdouglaspratt.com Doug Pratt

      I can give you a bird example. The local Hawaiian name for Bulwer’s Petrel is ou; but the ‘o‘u (with macrons or kahako on both vowels) is a recently extinct Hawaiian honeycreeper.

    • http://www.hdouglaspratt.com Doug Pratt

      That’s because it’s a Norwegian name.

    • http://www.hdouglaspratt.com Doug Pratt

      Actually, “furrin” words appear all the time in English prose, but most of the time they are italicized, like Latin names for birds. Exceptions appear most often in geographic place names. The capital of Yemen is Sana‘a, and is usually written that way. The view that glottal stops are not used in English is just wrong, as several others have pointed out. It’s just that we usually indicate them with an apostrophe (‘) rather than a glottal stop (‘), as in Li’l Abner. (What’s difference, you ask? the okina is an upside-down apostrophe, aka raised turned comma or single left quotation mark.) As for Kauai Monarch, the last one of those was conquered by Kamehameha I in 1808. Creating neologisms for all those Hawaiian-named birds would be a huge can of worms and a great disservice to scholarship (see my longer comments below).

    • http://www.hdouglaspratt.com Doug Pratt

      I have been resisting jumping into this discussion because I have gone over this ground so many times over the past 4 decades that I am just tired of it. Also, the younger generation has already covered most of the points (reinventing the wheel, it would seem) I would have made. But there are some topics that have not been addressed adequately, and because I have a unique perspective as a non-resident of Hawaii who has written extensively about Hawaiian birds, I offer the following points.

      1) Loan-words: One of the reasons English is such a dynamic and successful language is that it is constantly adapting to new geographical situations and evolving with the times. In doing so, it adopts words from local languages when there is no English equivalent. This is especially true for organisms that are not found in Europe. When English-speaking colonialists or settlers wanted to name an unfamiliar animal, they just asked the locals, then borrowed their word. Thus we have such “English” words as raccoon, kangaroo, opossum, moose, loon, cassowary, anhinga, and moa, to name just a few examples.
      This practice was common in Hawaii, where very few of the native birds resembled any European or American ones. So English-speaking residents of Hawaii used the Hawaiian names for most native species. (Exceptions were for the few that belonged to widespread groups: Hawaiian Crow, Short-eared Owl, Hawaiian Hawk, etc., although the local names for them are still widely used.) As a result, the only English names most of these birds have ever had are of Hawaiian origin. For example, there is no English equivalent of Apapane or Nukupuu. Those are the names English-speaking people who did not speak Hawaiian used for those birds. Like them or hate them, if you study Hawaiian birds at all, you will have to learn the Hawaiian-based names because they are the only ones with any historical stability. As taxonomic views have evolved over the years, the Latin names have changed many times, but the Hawaiian ones have remained the same. They are, in fact, the ONLY way to be sure what some historical writer is referring to.

      2) Language conventions: Many respondents seem to think that if we adopt Hawaiian orthography for Hawaiian bird names, we have to do that for all such loan-word names. That is clearly not the case. English grammar allows for what we call “conventions”, agreed-upon exceptions to the usual rules for a particular special case. Capitalization of standard bird names in ornithological and birding publications (to avoid confusion with descriptive terms; a great egret is not necessarily a Great Egret) is one such convention. We can easily adopt one that says that, in the special case of Hawaiian loan-word names for birds, we will write them with glottal stops and macrons. Such a convention would not, IMO, create a slippery slope because I know of few other bird names that need a special orthography. (On the other hand, older English bird literature used the cedilla in jacana, and I wish we still did. If we drop the cedilla, we should change the c to an s to avoid mispronunciations.)

      3) Hawaiian orthography: Should we use the glottal stop (‘okina) and the macron (kahako, with a macron on the o) in Hawaiian bird names when we are writing in English? Well, that depends. If you publish a book or paper in Hawaii, you will find that it’s a big deal in the islands and most publishers insist on the use of Hawaiian orthography. It can be viewed as a local convention. Street names throughout the islands use Hawaiian spelling (note I said “spelling” NOT “punctuation”; they’re different as Michael Retter pointed out), as do names for native plants, even though relatively few people speak Hawaiian these days. Local birders also use Hawaiian names for everything they can (Alala for the crow, ‘Io for the hawk, auku‘u for the night heron, pueo for the owl, etc.) and even recently invented a Hawaiian name (Kiwikiu) for the Maui Parrotbill. Such local chauvinism is understandable, and there is no use fighting it.
      My fundamental position is that we should use names of Hawaiian origin without Hawaiian orthography, and only for species that have no other English name plus the benefit of long tradition. But I have to please publishers and the local public to sell my books. So, for books that cover only Hawaiian birds, I generally use the local names and orthography. I appreciate the usefulness of the okina and kahako as a pronunciation aid, but the laziness in me hates typing them. Frankly, they are a pain in the butt, and the macron is impossible without special software that most people (and publishers) do not have. With proper orthography, Akiapolaau takes about as long to type as most whole sentences (actually, in Hawaiian it comes close to being a whole sentence!). In my 1987 field guide (Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific), I followed the AOU for Hawaiian bird names, but gave the Hawaiian names in italics with proper orthography as “Other names”. Because that book covers much more than just Hawaii, this seemed the right way to go.
      The bottom line is that no matter what the AOU or ABA does, many people, especially on the ground in Hawaii, are going to use those funny-looking letters and accent marks. So you might as well get used to them.

    • http://seekingalpha.com/user/712667/profile Robert Alan Yeatts

      Interesting thoughts on pronunciation. I had many of them wrong without knowing.

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      Merlin, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s new bird identification application, is a seamless, quick way for beginners to identify birds on-the-go. Taking into account the bird’s color and size, habitat, and time of year, the application provides accurate possibilities of the bird you found. The location uses the eBird citizen-science database to compile a lis […]

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